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As the best insulator is trapped air, the insulating capacity of a material is basically created by a structure containing a multitude of tiny air pockets. There is a simple rule: the heavier the material, the less it insulates; the lighter it is, the better it insulates.
In general, all load-bearing materials, such as concrete blocks, earth masonry, stone, joists, etc.
This group includes all lightweight building materials, such as Argex, Poroton terracotta blocks, etc.
These materials are heavy but contain a high proportion of air: cellular concrete blocks, wooden planks, etc. Used thickly, they can meet insulation standards.
Characterised by their lightness, they contain a high proportion of trapped air and should be considered the only 'insulating materials' in the true sense: mineral wool, extruded polystyrene, expanded polystyrene, cellulose acetate flakes, hemp wool, cellular glass, polyurethane foam, Resol foam, etc.
If you are thinking about building, here are some practical tips: